Open Guides

First, a disclaimer.

I’m not a wiki celebrity. I don’t look good in StudlyCaps. I’m not part of the wiki culture — I’ve never contributed to Ward’s Wiki, never used TWiki, am baffled by MoinMoin, and every time I look at UseMod code, my brain turns to mashed banana. Most wiki people probably have no idea who I am.

Having said that, I’m going to spend 2,500 words or so advocating the possibilities of Ward Cunningham’s simple, potent idea, and explaining how I and a couple of other Perlmongers have applied it to create what I think is one of the most exciting Perl applications currently in existence — OpenGuides.


grubstreet, the predecessor to OpenGuides, was conceived in early 2002 when I asked Earle Martin whether he knew of a London wiki:

It seems that my friend's Wiki is running UseModWiki; I think I rather
like it.  It would be good if there was one of these for info about
London; do you know if anyone's done that?  Things like which pubs
serve food and good beer, etc.; which is the best end of the platform
to stand at to get a seat (discussed this kind of thing with blech

Earle was enthusiastic and made it so. We both got very excited and started filling the thing with content. Wiki makes this easy! You’re reading a web page and spot something that’s wrong or missing. Click the “edit” link, add your comment, and it’s right there.


It didn’t take long before we started bumping our heads against the limitations of the usemod software. Even leaving aside its tendency to clamp down on its (custom-format) flat-file database and refuse anyone edit access, I found myself writing umpteen screenscrapers to do simple things like find a nice pub in Soho. I hate screenscraping, but I love my beer.

We tried to patch and amend usemod. We tried very hard. Ivor Williams, in particular, spent a lot of time in its guts. I decided in the end that writing software should only hurt some of the time, and after several beers one night, made a pact with Chris Ball that grubstreet’s software would be rewritten in Real Perl. Chris held me to it, and a CPAN-friendly wiki toolkit — CGI::Wiki — resulted. Once we had that to build on, we started on the CGI script that eventually turned into OpenGuides.

What It Says on the Tin

OpenGuides is a complete web application for managing a collaboratively written guide to a city or town.

Install OpenGuides, and what you get is a blank framework waiting for you to put content into it.

There's an opportunity right here for anyone wanting to join the project team. Write a set of pages for bundling with new installs of the OpenGuides software — how to use the Guide, how to format your entries, maybe stub pages for things that all cities have in common, maybe a category framework for transport pages — you're bound to be able to come up with better ideas than those of us who've been using the software for ages and are blind to its confusing spots.

Just a Skeleton, But a Damned Sturdy One

No, we didn’t just give you the equivalent of an empty directory to put your HTML files into. Start adding pages and you’ll see.

Suppose I want to add a page about my local pub. I’ll click on “Create a new page” and type in the page name. What should I call it? Well, this is a new OpenGuides install, with no established conventions, so I could call it “The Drapers Arms”, “Drapers Arms”, “The Drapers Arms (Islington)”, or whatever. I just need to keep in mind that the name needs to be unique, so if I expect there to be more than one Drapers Arms in my city, I really should add some other kind of identifying information. The Open Guide to London has a convention of including the postcode — thus “Drapers Arms, N1 1ER”.

OK, so I’ve done that, and now I’m presented with an editing form with several boxes for me to type into. The first, Content, is a freeform box where I can put any information that doesn’t fit into the particular boxes below.

Locales and Categories are the next boxes. I can put whatever I like into these, and so can later visitors to this Guide. I don’t need to decide right now on a useful way to divide my city into locales; it’ll just emerge from the aggregated opinion of all the people who contribute. I can always come back to this, my first page, in a few months and add any later-defined categories or locales that seem to apply to it. Or I may not need to; someone else may have got around to it before me.

Locales and categories are excellent ways to make sure that your newly added content doesn’t drift off into a decoupled purgatory of unlinked pages. Just add the Pubs category and the Islington locale to the Drapers Arms page, and anyone doing a search — whether a simple type-into-box or a directed locale or category search — will find it.

Next, we get a set of smaller boxes for entering things like more-detailed location information, contact information, and opening hours. These boxes may be completely irrelevant to many, most, or all pages in your Guide. That’s OK. They’re optional. But if you do fill them in, you get to play with what I feel is one of the most innovative, yet simple, features of OpenGuides — find me everything within half a kilometre of Piccadilly Circus Tube station. Please. Because my feet hurt and I could murder a glass of wine.

Customization and Extension

I meant it when I said I wanted to be able to find pubs. I want to find all pubs in Notting Hill that serve food and have a beer garden. The Open Guide to London must have this information! There’s no obvious way to get to it directly, though. I may have to write some code.

Given that I’m one of the admins, I have access to the database on the server — so I can call the CGI::Wiki list_nodes_by_metadata method directly to find all pages in Category Pubs, Locale Notting Hill, and Category Pub Food.

I wrote a CGI script to take in options for selecting pubs and output results. It’s very useful, so will be in one of the next few official OpenGuides releases. Here’s an excerpt. Note that the locale and categories are simply stored as CGI::Wiki metadata. Note also the use of CGI::Wiki::Plugin::Locator::UK to allow searching by nearest Tube station. You could easily adapt this if you live in a city where people navigate by some other kind of landmark.

my %possible_features = (
    "beer gardens"    => "Has beer garden",
    "function room"   => "Has function room",
    "good beer guide" => "Appears in the CAMRA Good Beer Guide",
    "real cider"      => "Serves real cider",
    "belgian beer"    => "Serves Belgian beer",
    "pub food"        => "Serves food of some kind",

if ( $action eq "search" ) {
    my @locales       = CGI::param( "locale" );
    my @features      = CGI::param( "feature" );
    my @tube_stations = CGI::param( "tube" );

    # Ignore the blank "any locales" option.
    @locales = grep { $_ } @locales;

    # Ensure that we only look for 'allowed' features.
    @features = grep { $possible_features{$_} } @features;

    # Ensure that we only look for extant Tube stations.
    my %is_tube = map { $_ => 1 } list_tube_stations();
    @tube_stations = grep { $is_tube{$_} } @tube_stations;

    # Grab all the pubs, to start with.
    my @pubs = $wiki->list_nodes_by_metadata(
                   metadata_type => "category",
                   metadata_value => "pubs",
                   ignore_case   => 1,

    # Filter by locale if specified.
    if ( scalar @locales > 0 ) {
        my @in_locale;
        foreach my $locale ( @locales ) {
            push @in_locale,
                     metadata_type  => "locale",
                     metadata_value => $locale,
                     ignore_case    => 1,
        my %in_locale_hash = map { $_ => 1 } @in_locale;
        @pubs = grep { $in_locale_hash{$_} } @pubs;

    # Filter by Tube station if specified.
    if ( scalar @tube_stations > 0 ) {
        my $locator = CGI::Wiki::Plugin::Locator::UK->new;
        $wiki->register_plugin( plugin => $locator );
        my @near_station;
        foreach my $station ( @tube_stations ) {
            push @near_station,
                    node   => $station . " Station",
                    metres => 600,
         my %near_station_hash = map { $_ => 1 } @near_station;
         @pubs = grep { $near_station_hash{$_} } @pubs;

    # Filter by features if specified.
    if ( scalar @features > 0 ) {
        my %has_feature = map { $_ => [] } @pubs;
        foreach my $feature ( @features ) {
            my @has_this_feature = $wiki->list_nodes_by_metadata(
                     metadata_type  => "category",
                     metadata_value => $feature,
                     ignore_case    => 1,
            foreach my $pub ( @has_this_feature ) {
                push @{ $has_feature{$pub} }, $feature;
        # Only keep pubs that have *all* the requested features.
        @pubs = grep { scalar @{ $has_feature{$_} } == scalar @features }

                  pubs          => \@pubs,
                  locales       => \@locales,
                  tube_stations => \@tube_stations,
                  features      => [ @possible_features{ @features } ],

You Can Do It, Too

Suppose I’d had the idea for this directed pub search but didn’t have direct access to any OpenGuides data store? No problem — I can play with the RDF interface. Most OpenGuides pages have a link to an RDF version, and this includes the auto-generated pages like locale or category search results.

I can send a query like;index_type=category;index_value=Pubs;format=rdf and then use RDF::Core::Parser to parse the returned RDF/XML and get the data that otherwise would have required CGI::Wiki calls.

The RDF interface isn’t too well advertised. A list of places where any kind of link to an RDF version is missing would be most useful.

Given the simple data model of an OpenGuides page, such an external add-on would be trivial to incorporate into the core distribution. So once you’ve written one, send it to us.

The RDF interface is also ideal for people interested in writing IRC bots:

15:12 <Kake> grotbot: things in Chinatown
15:12 <grotbot> OK, working on it
<grotbot> Kake: things in Chinatown: Crispy Duck, W1D 6PR; De Hems,
          W1D 5BW; Golden Harvest, WC2H 7BE; HK Diner; Hung's, W1D 6PR;
          Misato, W1D 6PG; Tai, W1D 4DH; Tokyo Diner; Zipangu, WC2H 7JJ


The OpenGuides software is still young. The install procedure, in particular, needs a good going-over, plus some of the location features only currently work for guides to cities located in the UK.

Live OpenGuides Installs

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