The Many Dates and Times of Perl

Some Basic Concepts

In order to understand what you might want to do with dates and times, it’s good to have a handle on some basic concepts. Here are some terms that I’ll be using in this article:

  • datetime
  • UTC (also GMT and Zulu) UTC stands for “Coordinated Universal Time”. It is an international standard which is kept using atomic clocks, and is kept to within 0.9 seconds of the rotation of the earth on its axis in order to work well with traditional standards of time-keeping. UTC time is measured at the prime meridian (O degrees longitude).

    Time zones around the world are specified as an offset from UTC. The widely used term GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) refers to a time zone that is equivalent to UTC. In other words, it has no offset.

    The US military has a set of terms used for time zones around the world based on the alphabet (A-Z). In this system UTC is Z, sometimes called “Zulu”.

    UTC is a good standard for the internal representation of dates and times, as it makes comparing datetimes or doing datetime math much easier.

  • Time zones and Daylight Saving Time

    Time zones, as mentioned above, are defined as an offset from UTC. Most, but not all, time zones are in offsets of whole hours. Adelaide, Australia has an offset of nine and a half hours ahead of UTC, and Nepal has an offset five hours and forty-five minutes ahead of UTC.

    Time zones are complicated by the use of Daylight Saving Time, which changes the actual offset of a given location to vary over the course of the year. The eastern US has an offset of -0500 from UTC, five hours behind UTC. This means that 12:00 (noon) UTC becomes 07:00 (AM). However, when Daylight Saving Time is in effect, the offset becomes -0400, four hours behind UTC. Because time zones are determined by governments, use of Daylight Saving Time, and the base offsets, have changed over time, and may change again in the future.

    This greatly complicates math when dealing with non-UTC datetimes. If I have a local datetime for the Eastern US of 2002-10-25 14:15:00 and I add six months to that datetime, then I will have crossed a DST change.

    The upshot of all this is that any code that represents time zones as fixed offset will probably start producing errors once date math gets involved.

    The definitive source of time zone offsets and rules is the Olson time zone database. It defines zones according to names like “America/New_York”, as opposed to “EST”. The latter shorthand is commonly used, but it should probably be avoided because these short names are not unique or definitive. For example, there is an “EST” at -0500 and +1000.

  • Local time

    The local time is UTC plus the local time zone offset. While UTC is great for internal use, most people want to see datetimes in terms of their location. In a sense, local time is the display format, while UTC is the storage format.

  • The epoch

    Epoch is a generic term referring to the “start” of any particular system. For example, the Gregorian calendar’s epoch is January 1, 1 CE.

    The epoch system, as used most operating systems, represents a datetime as the number of seconds after a specific date and time. For Unix systems, the epoch began on January 1, 1970 at midnight GMT (UTC). Other systems have different epochs. Because of this, you cannot assume that an epoch time of 2,003,131 means the same thing from system to system, because different systems have a different “second 0”. Storing a datetime as its epoch is not portable.

    Even worse, on most current systems, epochs are represented by a 32 bit signed integer, which only lets you represent datetimes with a range of about 136 years. On most UNIX systems currently in use, this means that the latest date you can represent right now is sometime in the year 2038, and the earliest is around 1902. This doesn’t work very well if you’re trying to represent the birth date of your great-great-grandmother.

    The upshot of all this is I would strongly recommend not using epochs except when you have no other choice. Of course, you’ll often have no choice, so it’s important to know how this system works.

  • The Gregorian Calendar

    There have been many different calendar systems in use throughout history. The Gregorian calendar is the current generally agreed upon international standard for representing dates, and is what you are using when you say “August 8, 1999”. Other calendars that are still in use include the Hebrew calendar, the Islamic calendar, and the Chinese calendar.

    Even though the Gregorian calendar wasn’t created until 1582, and it wasn’t adopted world wide until this century, we can still extrapolate backwards in time using the Gregorian calendar.

What Needs Doing with Dates and Times?

There are a lot of things you can do with dates and times, and different modules/distributions provide different types of functionality. Broadly speaking, we can consider the following areas of functionality:

  • Parsing/Formatting

    There are more datetime formats in use in the computing world than you can shake a stick at. You’ll often have to parse a datetime in one format in order to turn it into something you can work with internally, like a bunch of integers or an epoch time.

    On the flip side, you’ll often have to take some standard representation, like an epoch, and convert it to some other format.

  • Basic representation

    A nice datetime object can be quite handy. These range from lightweight wrappers around Perl’s localtime() to objects that try to provide methods for all possible datetime operations.

  • Math and calculations

    You’ll often want to answer questions like “what day is seven days after today” or “how much time is there between now and midnight?” This is closely related to the task of figuring out the date Easter falls on in a given year, or what day of the week Martin Luther King’s birthday falls on.

There are plenty of other things we can do with datetimes, but these are largely elaborations of the above areas of functionality.

Perl’s Built-in Date/Time Functionality

Perl has some built-in functionality for handling dates and times. This functionality includes:

  • time()

    A function that returns the current epoch time.

  • localtime() and gmtime()

    These functions convert an epoch time into a set of components representing the local time. They both return arrays containing things like the hour, minute, month, etc., though some of the values returned are awkward to use. For example, the year is the actual year minus 1900.

    The localtime() function returns the datetime of your current location, based on your system’s time zone setting, while the gmtime function returns the current UTC datetime.

    The Time::localtime and Time::gmtime modules provide a thin object layer around gmtime() and localtime() respectively, so you can do things like print gmtime()->year. Of course, that still prints the year minus 1900.

  • Time::Local

    This core module provide functions that translate from the array of components returned by localtime() or gmtime() back to an epoch time.


    The POSIX module included with Perl provides interfaces to several common C library functions for datetimes, such as strftime(). I consider this the last refuge for the desperate, because the module is a memory hog, and the C library interface is rather un-Perlish.

The Big Stars

These are the modules that have the longest history, and are the most widely used.

  • TimeDate distribution

    This distribution, maintained and mostly written by Graham Barr, includes three modules. Date::Format module provides a few functions for formatting datetime output, including a strftime() similar to the one in the standard C library. It can work with either epoch times, or the array of components returned by Perl’s localtime() function.

    Date::Parse parses a limited set of common datetime formats, returning either an epoch time or an array of components.

    The distribution also includes a number of language modules which can be used to localize both parsing and formatting.

    Finally, Time::Zone provides an interface to time zone offsets, based on short time zone names like “EST” or “GMT”. As was mentioned before, these names are not official or standardized, so they are of limited usefulness.

    All of these modules are limited by their use of epoch time internally, but they are fairly quick and light weight. For complex datetime problems, these modules probably don’t automate enough of the dirty work.

  • Time::Piece

    Written and maintained by Matt Sergeant, this module is based on an interface designed by Larry Wall. It provides a convenient object API for datetimes, though the API is a bit confusing. For example, $time->mon returns the month number (1-12) while $time->month returns the abbreviated name of the month.

    It also implements basic parsing and formatting via the use of the C-level strptime() and strftime() functions. The included Time::Seconds module allows for basic date math, such as $tomorrow = $time + ONE_DAY.

    The implementation is fairly lightweight, but is limited by its use of epoch time as the internal representation. It is certainly useful, but like the TimeDate modules, it doesn’t go far enough for more complex uses.

    As of this writing, Matt Sergeant has released an experimental version of Time::Piece based on my module. This leaves the Time::Piece API unchanged, but allows it to handle dates that cannot be represented by a given system’s epoch.

  • Date::Manip

    Sullivan Beck’s Date::Manip is really huge, weighing in at about 3,000 lines of code. As might be expected of that much code, there is something for everyone here. It handles parsing, formatting, date math, as well as more esoteric things like recurring datetimes and business day calculations. It should be noted that it’s time zone support is pretty much the same that provided by Time::Zone.

    This module’s most unique feature is its very flexible parser, which is capable of handling things like “3 weeks ago Monday” or “next Sunday”. It also provides some parsing for specifying recurrences, like “every 3rd Monday in 2003”.

    Unlike everything else we’ve covered so far, this module is not limited to epoch times. It has an entirely functional interface, and in my opinion the API could be cleaner. I dislike the fact that some functions do many different things, with the output depending either on the argument type(s), explicit flags, or both.

    But the biggest problem with this module, which is acknowledged by its author, is its size. It uses lots of memory (about 3MB on my system), and is fairly slow to load. The former makes it problematic for mod_perl, and the latter causes problems with CGI scripts. You can find most of its features elsewhere, in slimmer modules, but if size and speed are not an issue, this module almost certainly does everything you want.

  • Date::Calc

    Steffen Beyer’s Date::Calc distribution is where you go when you need functionality combined with speed. This modules offers much of the functionality provided by Date::Manip, but the core Date::Calc module has a much smaller memory footprint than Date::Manip (about 1MB on my box), and much greater speed. This is because its core implementation is in C.

    This module provides functions for calculating all sorts of date-related information, as well some minimal parsing and formatting operations. The interface requires some hand-holding to use, as every function returns one or more elements, never a data structure such as a hash, so you have to constantly deal with passing and receiving arrays of values.

    The distribution also includes a class called Date::Calc::Object, which can represent either a datetime or a “delta”, the difference between two datetimes. This dual nature is odd, since many of the methods applicable to one will not work for the other. The class supports overloading for date math and comparison, so you can do things like $date + [1, 2, 3], which adds one year, two months, and three days to the given date.

    Finally, there is a Date::Calendar object, which can be used to set up a calendar “profile” defining holidays, work days, and partial work days in a variety of ways. This is quite useful if you need to calculate a day X business days in the future, while taking account of a particular organization’s holidays.

    None of the modules in this distribution rely on epoch time, though they only support positive-numbered years. Time zone support is extremely minimal, and is done only as offsets, without support for daylight saving rules. Localization for a variety of languages is implemented for parsing and formatting.

And a Cast of Thousands …

It wouldn’t be Perl if there weren’t at least a dozen other modules with overlapping functionality, right? In this case, there’s more than two dozen! For sanity’s sake, I’ve excluded more than a few modules, in particular those that either appeared to be unmaintained, or those without enough comprehensible documentation for me to figure out what the heck they do. In alphabetical order, those remaining are:

  • Astro::Sunrise - Ron Hill

    This module provides sunrise and sunset times, given a specific date and place.

  • Astro::Time - Chris Phillips

    Contains a number of functions useful when dealing with datetimes as they are used in astronomy.

  • Class::Date - Balázs Szabó

    This is basically the Time::Piece API plus more stuff. It appears to provide complete time zone support based on the Olson database, by way of It is epoch-limited.

  • Date::Business - Richard DeSimine

    A simple interface for doing date math with business dates. In other words, weekends don’t count, and you can define your own holidays. This module is epoch-limited.

  • Date::Convert - Mordechai Abzug

    Converts dates between the Gregorian, Hebrew, and Julian calendars.

  • Date::Convert::French_Rev - Jean Forget

    Converts to and from the French Revolutionary calendar.

  • Date::Day - John Von Essen

    Tells you the day of the week for a given date.

  • Date::DayofWeek - Rich Bowen

    Does exactly the same thing as Date::Day but only for years 1500-2699. On the flip side, it uses a cuter algorithm.

  • Date::Decade - Michael Diekmann

    Provides three decade calculation functions with an API similar to that of Date::Calc.

  • Date::Discordian - Rich Bowen

    Converts to and from the Discordian calendar.

  • Date::Easter - Rich Bowen

    Calculates the date Easter falls on in a given year.

  • Date::Handler - Benoit Beausejour

    A date object comparable to Time::Piece, but with a more consistent interface. It implements localization, a variety of date math operations, and includes an object for representing datetime spans. It provides time zone support based on the native OS implementation, which on some systems means support for the Olson database. It is epoch-limited.

  • Date::ICal - Rich Bowen

    A date object that provides a simple API, date math, and iCal formatting and parsing (see RFC 2445). It only support time zones as offsets, but it is not epoch-limited.

  • Date::ISO - Rich Bowen

    A subclass of Date::ICal that adds ISO 8601 format parsing and formatting.

  • Date::Japanese::Era - Tatsuhiko Miyagawa C

    onverts to and from Japanese Era dates.

  • Date::Japanese::Holiday - Tomohiro Ikebe

    Tells you whether or not a given date is a Japanese holiday.

  • Date::Leapsecond - Flávio Soibelmann Glock

    Converts between UT1 and UTC times.

  • Date::Leapyear - Rich Bowen

    One function to tell you whether or not a given year is a leap year.

  • Date::Maya - Abigail

    Converts between Julian days and the Mayan calendar.

  • Date::Passover - Rich Bowen

    Calculates the dates of Passover and Rosh Hashanah for a given year.

  • Date::PeriodParser - Simon Cozens

    Parses English descriptions of time periods like “this morning” or “around two weeks ago” and turns them into pairs of epoch times representing the beginning and end of the period.

  • Date::Range - Tony Bowden

    An object for representing a range of dates. Lets you figure out whether two ranges overlap, whether a date is included in a given range, and a few other useful things.

  • Date::Roman - Leo Cacciari

    An object for representing dates according to the Roman calendar.

  • Date::Set - Flávio Soibelmann Glock

    An object that represents sets of datetimes. A set can be either a datetime span, a recurring set of dates, or a fixed set of specific datetimes. It provides set math operations for all of these, as well as allowing you to iterate across the members of the set. Also see Date::Set::Timezone.

  • Date::Simple - John Tobey A

    date object that represents dates only, without a time component. It provides date math. It is not epoch-limited.

  • Date::Tie - Flávio Soibelmann Glock

    A basic date object with date math. Its functionality is implemented via a tied hash interface. It supports fixed offset time zones, and it is epoch-limited.

  • HTTP::Date - Gisle Aas

    This module is part of the LWP distribution. It parses many common datetime formats, including all of those that are used by the HTTP protocol. If Date::Parse doesn’t understand all the formats you need to deal with, this module provides a good alternative.

  • Time::Duration - Sean Burke

    Given a number of seconds, this module return a human language description of the duration. For example, 3660 seconds would be “1 hour and 1 minute”.

  • Time::Human - Simon Cozens

    Given an epoch time, this module can return a string describing that time in colloquial terms, such as “half past nine”. It has hooks for localization.

  • Time::Unix - Nathan Wiger

    Loading this module forces Perl’s time() function to use the Unix epoch system, regardless of the OS on which the code is running.

  • Time modules - David Muir Sharnoff

    This distribution includes Time::CTime, Time::ParseDate, and Time::Timezone, which are slightly more powerful versions of Graham Barr’s Date::Format, Date::Parse, and Time::Zone.

But Wait, There’s More!

Not content to leave well enough alone, I’ve recently started a project to fix what I see as the fundamental problem with the state of Perl datetime modules. That fundamental problem is that despite the fact that almost all the possible functionality you could want exists, it is scattered over a large number of incompatible modules.

For example, Date::Calc provides good functionality for various datetime calculations and date math, but the values it returns are not well suited for being passed to Date::Format. And while Date::Manip has powerful parsing, the return value from its parsing routine cannot be passed to any other module without further massaging. And so and so on.

For example, if I wanted to parse a date with Date::Parse and then calculate the date one week later with Date::Calc, and then format it with Date::Format, I’d have to do the following:

my $time1 = str2time($date_string); # Date::Parse

# Today() from Date::Calc returns
# date information for an epoch time
my ($y1, $m1, $d1) = Today($time);

my ($y2, $m2, $d2) = Add_Delta_Days($y1, $m1, $d1, 7);

my $time2 = Date_to_Time($y2, $m2, $d2);

print strftime('%B %d, %Y', $time2);

Of course, I didn’t have to use the strftime() function for formatting a date. I could have done it with just Date::Calc as:

print sprintf('%s %02d %04d',
Month_to_Text($m2), $d2, $y2);

But I want convenience. If I’m dealing with many datetimes and I need to parse various inputs, generate different formats, and do lots of calculations, then a convenient and uniform API can go a long way towards code maintainability. The extra glue code needed to make different modules cooperate can quickly obscure the actual intent of the program.

Efforts in the past to herd all the existing module authors towards a common API have failed, so rather than try that again, I decided to just write even more datetime code. As we all know, the best way to put out a fire is to pour copious amounts of gasoline on it. In order to make my project sound cool, I’m calling it the “Perl DateTime Suite”, which sounds much better than “more date and time modules”.

The goal for this project is to produce a suite of datetime modules that do everything you’d ever need related to dates and times. The modules in this suite will cooperate with each other, which means that a module that parses datetimes will return a standard object, and a module for formatting datetimes will accept that standard object.

So far, this project has attracted interest from a number of people, and discussions on the list have gone well. Recently, I released alpha versions of the core object,, as well as DateTime::TimeZone, which provides complete time zone support based on the Olson database. There is also an alpha of DateTime::Format::ICal on CPAN, a module for parsing and formatting iCal datetimes and durations. In the future, look for more modules in the suite, all of which will begin with “DateTime::“.

Further Resources and Reading

Some excellent online resources include Claus Tondering’s Calendar FAQ at, as well as the US Naval Observatory Time Service site at For more information on time zones and the Olson database, see

If you’re interested in discussing anything related to Perl and datetimes, check out the list. You can subscribe by sending a message to


Thanks to Jonathan Scott Duff, Nick Tonkin, and Iain Truskett for reviewing this article before publication.



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