Building Navigation Menus

Navigation menus are a group of links given at one side of the page that allows users to navigate to different places of a website. Navigation menus allow site visitors to explore other pages of the site and to find what they want more easily. For example, Paul Graham's home page contains a simple navigation menu made out of images. It doesn't change as the site visitor move to different pages of the site. The KDE desktop environment home page contains a more sophisticated menu. Click on the link to the screenshots to see a submenu for links to screenshots from multiple versions of KDE. Other menu items have similar expansions.

Common Patterns in Navigation Menus and Site Flow

There are several patterns in maintaining navigation menus and general site flow.

A Tree of Items

Usually, the items in the navigation menus are a tree structure (as is the case for the KDE site) or a flat list. Sometimes, branches of the tree can expand or collapse depending on the current page. This prevents having to display the entire tree at once.

Next/Previous/Up Links to Traverse a Site

Many sites provide links to traverse the pages of the site in order: a Next link to go to the next page, a Previous link to go to the previous page, an Up link to go to the section containing the current page, a Contents link to go to the main page, and so on.

HTML can represent these links by using <head> tag and <link rel="next" href="" />. directives. Mozilla, Firefox, and Opera all support these tags. They can be also visible in the HTML as normal links, as is the case with GNU Documentation.

Site Maps and Breadcrumb Trails

Other navigation aids provided by sites include a site map (like the one on Eric S. Raymond's home page) and a breadcrumb trail. A breadcrumb trail is a path of the components of the navigation menu that leads to the current page. The documentation for Module::Build::Cookbook on provides an example ("Ken Williams > Module-Build > Module::Build::Cookbook," in this case).

Hidden Pages and Skipped Pages

Hidden pages are part of the site flow (the next/previous scheme) but don't appear in the navigation menu. Skipped pages are the opposite: they appear in the navigation menu, but are not part of the site flow.

Introducing HTML::Widgets::NavMenu

How do you create menus? HTML::Widgets::NavMenu is a CPAN module for maintaining navigation menus and site flow in general. It supports all of the above-mentioned patterns and some others, has a comprehensive test suite, and is under active maintenance. I have successfully used this module to maintain the site flow logic for such sites as my personal home page and the Perl Beginners' Site. Other people use it for their own sites.

This makes it easy to generate and maintain such navigation menus in Perl. It is generic enough so that it can generate static HTML or dynamic HTML on the fly for use within server-side scripts (CGI, mod_perl, etc.).

To install it, use a CPAN front end by issuing a command such as perl -MCPANPLUS -e "install HTML::Widgets::NavMenu" or perl -MCPAN -e "install HTML::Widgets::NavMenu".

A Simple Example

Here's a simple example: a navigation tree that contains a home page and two other pages.

You can see the complete code for this example:


use strict;
use warnings;

use HTML::Widgets::NavMenu;
use File::Path;

This is the standard way to begin a Perl script. It imports the module and the File::Path module, both of which it uses later.

my $css_style = <<"EOF";
a:hover { background-color : palegreen; }
.body {

This code defines a CSS stylesheet to make things nicer visually.

my $nav_menu_tree =
    'host'  => "default",
    'text'  => "Top 1",
    'title' => "T1 Title",
    'subs'  =>
            'text' => "Home",
            'url'  => "",
            'text'  => "About Me",
            'title' => "About Myself",
            'url'   => "me/",
            'text'  => "Links",
            'title' => "Hyperlinks to other Pages",
            'url'   => "links/",

Now this is important. This is the tree that describes the navigation menu. It is a standard nested Perl 5 data structure, with well-specified keys. These keys are:

  • host: A specification of the host on which the sub-tree starting from that node resides. HTML::Widgets::NavMenu menus can span several hosts on several domains. In this case, the menu uses just one host, so default here is fine.
  • text: What to place inside of the <a>...</a> tag (or alternatively, the <b> tag, if it's the current page).
  • title: Text to place as a title attribute to a hyperlink (usually displayed as a tooltip). It can display more detailed information, helping to keep the link text itself short.
  • url: The path within the host where this item resides. Note that all URLs are relative to the top of the host, not the URL of their supernode. If the supernode has a path of software/ and you wish the subnode to have a path of software/gimp/, specify url => 'software/gimp/'.
  • subs: An array reference that contains the node's sub-items. Normally, this will render them in a submenu.

One final note: HTML::Widgets::NavMenu does not render the top item. The rendering starts from its sub-items.

my %hosts =
    'hosts' =>
        'default' =>
            'base_url' => ("" .

This is the hosts map, which holds the hosts for the site. Here there is only one host, called default.

my @pages =
        'path'    => "",
        'title'   => "John Doe's Homepage",
        'content' => <<'EOF',
Hi! This is the homepage of John Doe. I hope you enjoy your stay here.

The purpose of this array is to enumerate the pages, giving each one the <title> tag, the <h1> title, and the content that it contains. It's not part of HTML::Widgets::NavMenu, but rather something that this script uses to render meaningful pages.

foreach my $page (@pages)
    my $path     = $page->{'path'};
    my $title    = $page->{'title'};
    my $content  = $page->{'content'};
    my $nav_menu =

            path_info     => "/$path",
            current_host  => "default",
            hosts         => \%hosts,
            tree_contents => $nav_menu_tree,

    my $nav_menu_results = $nav_menu->render();
    my $nav_menu_text    = join("\n", @{$nav_menu_results->{'html'}});
    my $file_path = $path;
    if (($file_path =~ m{/$}) || ($file_path eq ""))
        $file_path .= "index.html";
    my $full_path = "dest/$file_path";
    $full_path =~ m{^(.*)/[^/]+$};

	# mkpath() throws an exception if it isn't successful, which will cause
	# this program to terminate.  This is what we want.
    mkpath($1, 0, 0755);
    open my $out, ">", $full_path or
        die "Could not open \"$full_path\" for writing: $!\n";
    print {$out} <<"EOF";
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html
     PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
<style type="text/css">
<div class="navbar">
<div class="body">


This loop iterates over all the pages and renders each one in turn. If the directory up to the file does not exist, the program creates it by using the mkpath() function. The most important lines are:

    my $nav_menu =
            path_info     => "/$path",
            current_host  => "default",
            hosts         => \%hosts,
            tree_contents => $nav_menu_tree,

    my $nav_menu_results = $nav_menu->render();
    my $nav_menu_text    = join("\n", @{$nav_menu_results->{'html'}});

This code initializes a new navigation menu, giving it four named parameters. path_info is the path within the host. Note that, as opposed to the paths in the navigation menu, it starts with a slash. This is to allow some CGI-related redirections. current_host is the current host (again, it's default). Finally, hosts and tree_contents point to hosts and the tree of contents, respectively.

The object render() method returns the results in a hash reference, with the navigation menu results as an array of tags pointed by the html key. The code finally joins and returns them.

The program produces this result, with three entries, placed in a <ul>. When a user visits a page, the corresponding menu entry displays in bold and has its link removed.

A More Complex Example

Now consider a more complex example. This time, the tree is considerably larger and contains nested items. There are now subs of other pages.

The final site has a menu. When accessing a page (for example, the "About Myself" page) its expands so visitors can see its sub-items.

Adding More Navigation Aids

The next step is to add a breadcrumb trail, navigation links, and a site map to the site. You can inspect the new code to see if you understand it and view the final site.

The breadcrumb trail appears right at the top of the site. Below it is a toolbar with navigation links like "next," "previous," and "up." Finally, there's a site map. Here are the salient points of the code's modifications:

  1. The code loads the Template Toolkit to render the page, then fills in the variables of the template to define the template itself and to process it into the output file.
  2. The CSS stylesheet has several new styles, to make the modified page look nicer.
  3. A template portion to transform a breadcrumb-trail object as returned by HTML::Widgets::NavMenu into HTML. It should be easy to understand.
  4. The bottom of the navigation menu tree now has an entry with a link to the site map page.
  5. The site map is now part of the @pages array. It initializes an HTML::Widgets::NavMenu with the appropriate URL, and then uses its gen_site_map() function.
  6. There is new code used to generate the navigation links. These links are a hash reference with the keys being the relevance of the link and the value being an object supplying information about the link (such as direct_url() or title()). There are two loops that renders each link into both the HTML <head> tag <link> elements, or the toolbar to present on the page.
  7. The text of the breadcrumb trail is a join of their HTML representations.
  8. The generated HTML template includes the new page elements.

Fine-Grained Site Flow

The final example modifies the site to have a more sophisticated site flow. Looking at the changes shows several more additions. Their implications are:

  1. Both English resumés have a 'skip' => 1, pair. This caused these pages to appear in the navigation menu, but not to be part of the traversal flow. Clicking "next" at that page will skip them both. Pressing "prev" at the page that follows them leads to the page that precedes them.
  2. The Humour section has its 'show_always' attribute set, causing it to expand on all pages of the site.
  3. 'expand' is a regular expression for the Software section. As a result, accessing a page not specified in the navigation menu but that matches that regular expression causes the Software section to expand there.
  4. The software tools page entry has the attribute 'hide' => 1. This removes it from the navigation menu but allows it to appear in the site flow. Clicking on "next" on the preceding page will reach it.

A CGI Script

Until now, the examples have demonstrated generating a set of static HTML pages. The code can also run dynamically on a server. One approach is to use the ubiquitous, which comes bundled with Perl.

Converting to the CGI script required few changes. Inside of the page loop, the code checks if the page matches the CGI path info (the path appended after the CGI script name). If so, the code calls the render_page() function.

render_page() is similar to the rest of the loop except that it prints the output to STDOUT after the CGI header. Finally, after the loop ends, the code checks that it has found a page. If not, it displays an error page.

Note that the way this script looks for a suitable page is suboptimal. A better-engineered script might keep the page paths in a persistent hash or other data structure from which to look up the path info.


This article demonstrated how to use HTML::Widgets::NavMenu to maintain navigation menus and organize site flow. Reading its documentation may reveal other useful features. Now you no longer have an excuse for lacking the niceties demonstrated here on your site. Happy hacking!


Thanks to Diego Iastrubni, Aankehn, and chromatic (my editor) for giving some useful commentary on early drafts of this document.

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