Cooking with Perl, Part 3

Editor's note: In this third and final batch of recipes excerpted from Perl Cookbook, you'll find solutions and code examples for extracting HTML table data, templating with HTML::Mason, and making simple changes to elements or text.

Sample Recipe: Extracting Table Data


You have data in an HTML table, and you would like to turn that into a Perl data structure. For example, you want to monitor changes to an author's CPAN module list.


Use the HTML::TableContentParser module from CPAN:

use HTML::TableContentParser;
$tcp = HTML::TableContentParser->new;
$tables = $tcp->parse($HTML);
foreach $table (@$tables) {
  @headers = map { $_->{data} } @{ $table->{headers} };
  # attributes of table tag available as keys in hash
  $table_width = $table->{width};
  foreach $row (@{ $tables->{rows} }) {
    # attributes of tr tag available as keys in hash
    foreach $col (@{ $row->{cols} }) {
      # attributes of td tag available as keys in hash
      $data = $col->{data};


The HTML::TableContentParser module converts all tables in the HTML document into a Perl data structure. As with HTML tables, there are three layers of nesting in the data structure: the table, the row, and the data in that row.

Each table, row, and data tag is represented as a hash reference. The hash keys correspond to attributes of the tag that defined that table, row, or cell. In addition, the value for a special key gives the contents of the table, row, or cell. In a table, the value for the rows key is a reference to an array of rows. In a row, the cols key points to an array of cells. In a cell, the data key holds the HTML contents of the data tag.

For example, take the following table:

<table width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
    <td>Larry &amp; Gloria</td>
    <td>Mountain View</td>
    <td>Nathan &amp; Jenine</td>
    <td>Fort Collins</td>

The parse method returns this data structure:

    'width' => '100%',
    'bgcolor' => '#ffffff',
    'rows' => [
                'cells' => [
                            { 'data' => 'Larry &amp; Gloria' },
                            { 'data' => 'Mountain View' },
                            { 'data' => 'California' },
                'data' => "\n      "
                'cells' => [
                            { 'data' => '<b>Tom</b>' },
                            { 'data' => 'Boulder' },
                            { 'data' => 'Colorado' },
                'data' => "\n      "
                'cells' => [
                            { 'data' => 'Nathan &amp; Jenine' },
                            { 'data' => 'Fort Collins' },
                            { 'data' => 'Colorado' },
                'data' => "\n      "

The data tags still contain tags and entities. If you don't want the tags and entities, remove them by hand using techniques from "Extracting or Removing HTML Tags."

Previous Articles in this Series

Cooking with Perl
Cooking with Perl, Part 2

Example 20-11 fetches a particular CPAN author's page and displays in plain text the modules they own. You could use this as part of a system that notifies you when your favorite CPAN authors do something new.

Example 20-11: Dump modules for a particular CPAN author

  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
  # dump-cpan-modules-for-author - display modules a CPAN author owns
  use LWP::Simple;
  use URI;
  use HTML::TableContentParser;
  use HTML::Entities;
  use strict;
  our $URL = shift || '';
  my $tables = get_tables($URL);
  my $modules = $tables->[4];    # 5th table holds module data
  foreach my $r (@{ $modules->{rows} }) {
    my ($module_name, $module_link, $status, $description) = 
        parse_module_row($r, $URL);
    print "$module_name <$module_link>\n\t$status\n\t$description\n\n";
  sub get_tables {
    my $URL = shift;
    my $page = get($URL);
    my $tcp = new HTML::TableContentParser;
    return $tcp->parse($page);
  sub parse_module_row {
    my ($row, $URL) = @_;
    my ($module_html, $module_link, $module_name, $status, $description);
    # extract cells
    $module_html = $row->{cells}[0]{data};  # link and name in HTML
    $status      = $row->{cells}[1]{data};  # status string and link
    $description = $row->{cells}[2]{data};  # description only
    $status =~ s{<.*?>}{  }g; # naive link removal, works on this simple HTML
    # separate module link and name from html
    ($module_link, $module_name) = $module_html =~ m{href="(.*?)".*?>(.*)<}i;
    $module_link = URI->new_abs($module_link, $URL); # resolve relative links
    # clean up entities and tags
    return ($module_name, $module_link, $status, $description);

See Also

The documentation for the CPAN module HTML::TableContentParser;

Sample Recipe: Templating with HTML::Mason


You want to separate presentation (HTML formatting) from logic (Perl code) in your program. Your web site has a lot of components with only slight variations between them. You'd like to abstract out common elements and build your pages from templates without having a lot of "if I'm in this page, then print this; else if I'm in some other page . . . " conditional statements in a single master template.


Use HTML::Mason components and inheritance.


HTML::Mason (also simply called Mason) offers the power of Perl in templates. The basic unit of a web site built with Mason is the component--a file that produces output. The file can be HTML, Perl, or a mixture of both. Components can take arguments and execute arbitrary Perl code. Mason has many features, documented at and in Embedding Perl in HTML with Mason by Dave Rolsky and Ken Williams (O'Reilly; online at

Mason works equally well with CGI, mod_perl, and non-web programs. For the purposes of this recipe, however, we look at how to use it with mod_perl. The rest of this recipe contains a few demonstrations to give you a feel for what you can do with Mason and how your site will be constructed. There are more tricks, traps, and techniques for everything we discuss, though, so be sure to visit the web site and read the book for the full story.


Install the HTML-Mason distribution from CPAN and add the following to your httpd.conf:

PerlModule HTML::Mason::ApacheHandler
<Location /mason>
  SetHandler perl-script
  PerlHandler HTML::Mason::ApacheHandler
  DefaultType text/html

This tells mod_perl that every URL that starts with /mason is handled by Mason. So if you request /mason/hello.html, the file mason/hello.html in your document directory will be compiled and executed as a Mason component. The DefaultType directive lets you omit the .html from component names.

Next create a directory for Mason to cache the compiled components in. Mason does this to speed up execution.

mkdir mason

Then make a mason directory for components to live in:

mkdir mason

Now you're ready for "Hello, World". Put this in mason/hello:

Hello, <% ("World", "Puny Human")[rand 2] %>

Restart Apache and load up the mason/hello page. If you reload it, you should see "Hello, World" and "Hello, Puny Human" randomly. If not, look at the Mason FAQ (, which answers most commonly encountered problems.

Basic Mason syntax

There are four types of new markup in Mason components: substitutions, Perl code, component calls, and block tags. You saw a substitution in the "Hello World" example: <% ... %> evaluates the contents as Perl code and inserts the result into the surrounding text.

Perl code is marked with a % at the start of the line:

% $now = localtime;   # embedded Perl
This page was generated on <% $now %>.

Because substitutions can be almost any Perl code you like, this could have been written more simply as:

This page was generated on <% scalar localtime %>.

If either of these variations were saved in footer.mas, you could include it simply by saying:

<& footer.mas &>

This is an example of a component call--Mason runs the component and inserts its result into the document that made the call.

Block tags define different regions of your component. <%perl> ... </%perl> identifies Perl code. While % at the start of a line indicates that just that line is Perl code, you can have any number of lines in a <%perl> block.

A <%init> ... </%init> block is like an INIT block in Perl. The code in the block is executed before the main body of code. It lets you store definitions, initialization, database connections, etc. at the bottom of your component, where they're out of the way of the main logic.

The <%args> ... </%args> block lets you define arguments to your component, optionally with default values. For example, here's greet.mas:

   $name => "Larry"
   $town => "Mountain View"
Hello, <% $name %>.  How's life in <% $town %>?

Calling it with:

<& greet.mas &>


Hello, Larry.  How's life in Mountain View?

You can provide options on the component call:

<& greet.mas, name => "Nat", town => "Fort Collins" &>

That emits:

Hello, Nat.  How's life in Fort Collins?

Because there are default values, you can supply only some of the arguments:

<& greet.mas, name => "Bob" &>

That emits:

Hello, Bob.  How's life in Mountain View?

Arguments are also how Mason components access form parameters. Take this form:

<form action="compliment">
  How old are you?  <input type="text" name="age"> <br />
  <input type="submit">

Here's a compliment component that could take that parameter:

Hi.  Are you really <% $age %>?  You don't look it!

All Mason components have access to a $m variable, which contains an HTML::Mason::Request object. Methods on this object give access to Mason features. For example, you can redirect with:


The $r variable is the mod_perl request object, so you have access to the information and functions of Apache from your Mason handlers. For example, you can discover the client's IP address with:

$ip = $r->connection->remote_ip;

When a page is requested through Mason, Mason can do more than simply execute the code in that page. Mason inspects each directory between the component root and the requested page, looking for components called autohandler. This forms a wrapping chain, with the top-level autohandler at the start of the chain and the requested page at the end. Mason then executes the code at the start of the chain. Each autohandler can say "insert the output of the next component in the chain here."

Imagine a newspaper site. Some parts don't change, regardless of which article you're looking at: the banner at the top, the random selection of ads, the list of sections down the lefthand side. However, the actual article text varies from article to article. Implement this in Mason with a directory structure like this:


The individual story files contain only the text of each story. The autohandler builds the page (the banner, the ads, the navigation bar), and when it wants to insert the content of the story, it says:

% $m->call_next;

This tells Mason to call the next component in the chain (the story) and insert its output here.

The technique of having a chain of components is called inheritance, and autohandlers aren't the only way to do it. In a component, you can designate a parent with:

  inherit = 'parent.mas'

This lets you have different types of content in the one directory, and each contained component gets to identify its surrounding page (its parent).


Sometimes it's nice to provide the illusion of a directory full of pages, when in reality they are all dynamically generated. For example, stories kept in a database could be accessed through URLs like:


The Mason way to dynamically generate the pages at these URLs is with a component called dhandler in the sports directory. The dhandler component accesses the name of the missing page (123 in this case) by calling:


You could then use this to retrieve the story from the database and insert it into a page template.

See Also

Recipe 15.11 in mod_perl Developer's Cookbook; Embedding Perl in HTML with Mason; and

Sample Recipe: Making Simple Changes to Elements or Text


You want to filter some XML. For example, you want to make substitutions in the body of a document, or add a price to every book described in an XML document, or you want to change <book id="1"> to <book> <id>1</id>.


Use the XML::SAX::Machines module from CPAN:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use MySAXFilter1;
use MySAXFilter2;
use XML::SAX::ParserFactory;
use XML::SAX::Machines qw(Pipeline);
my $machine = Pipeline(MySAXFilter1 => MySAXFilter2); # or more

Write a handler, inheriting from XML::SAX::Base as in "Parsing XML into SAX Events," then whenever you need a SAX event, call the appropriate handler in your superclass. For example:



A SAX filter accepts SAX events and triggers new ones. The XML::SAX::Base module detects whether your handler object is called as a filter. If so, the XML::SAX::Base methods pass the SAX events onto the next filter in the chain. If your handler object is not called as a filter, then the XML::SAX::Base methods consume events but do not emit them. This makes it almost as simple to write events as it is to consume them.

The XML::SAX::Machines module chains the filters for you. Import its Pipeline function, then say:

my $machine = Pipeline(Filter1 => Filter2 => Filter3 => Filter4);

SAX events triggered by parsing the XML file go to Filter1, which sends possibly different events to Filter2, which in turn sends events to Filter3, and so on to Filter4. The last filter should print or otherwise do something with the incoming SAX events. If you pass a reference to a typeglob, XML::SAX::Machines writes the XML to the filehandle in that typeglob.

Example 22-5 shows a filter that turns the id attribute in book elements from the XML document in Example 22-1 into a new id element. For example, <book id="1"> becomes <book><id>1</id>.

Example 22-5: filters-rewriteids

package RewriteIDs;
# -- turns "id" attributes into elements
use base qw(XML::SAX::Base);
my $ID_ATTRIB = "{  }id";   # the attribute hash entry we're interested in
sub start_element {
    my ($self, $data) = @_;
    if ($data->{Name} eq 'book') {
        my $id = $data->{Attributes}{$ID_ATTRIB}{Value};
        delete $data->{Attributes}{$ID_ATTRIB};
        # make new element parameter data structure for the <id> tag
        my $id_node = {  };
        %$id_node = %$self;
        $id_node->{Name} = 'id';     # more complex if namespaces involved
        $id_node->{Attributes} = {  };
        # build the <id>$id</id>
        $self->SUPER::characters({ Data => $id });
    } else {

Example 22-6 is the stub that uses XML::SAX::Machines to create the pipeline for processing books.xml and print the altered XML.

Example 22-6: filters-rewriteprog

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
# rewrite-ids -- call RewriteIDs SAX filter to turn id attrs into elements
use RewriteIDs;
use XML::SAX::Machines qw(:all);
my $machine = Pipeline(RewriteIDs => *STDOUT);

The output of Example 22-6 is as follows (truncated for brevity):

    <title>Programming Perl</title>
    <title>Perl &amp; LWP</title>

To save the XML to the file new-books.xml, use the XML::SAX::Writer module:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use RewriteIDs;
use XML::SAX::Machines qw(:all);
use XML::SAX::Writer;
my $writer = XML::SAX::Writer->new(Output => "new-books.xml");
my $machine = Pipeline(RewriteIDs => $writer);

You can also pass a scalar reference as the Output parameter to have the XML appended to the scalar; as an array reference to have the XML appended to the array, one array element per SAX event; or as a filehandle to have the XML printed to that filehandle.

See Also

The documentation for the modules XML::SAX::Machines and XML::SAX::Writer

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